What is normal dating behavior

Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment. Using factor analysis, item response theory, and multidimensional scaling, we propose that the PCL-R and its derivatives are underpinned by at least four correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Given that the modeling results to date indicate a moderate to strong covariation of four dimensions of psychopathy (Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral, and Antisocial), it would be prudent to assume that the longitudinal relations among these dimensions are interactive and reciprocal, and that the "real" core of psychopathy has yet to be uncovered. We also argue that the idea of construct "drift" is irrelevant to current conceptualizations of psychopathy, which are better informed by the extensive empirical research on the integration of structural, genetic, developmental, personality, and neurobiological research findings than by rigid adherence to early clinical formulations. They tend not to be deterred from their self-serving behaviors by criminal or social penalties. We argue that attempts to characterize antisocial behaviors as merely "downstream" manifestations of more central traits are inconsistent with the structural properties of the PCL-R and with evidence that the development of traits and actions are interactive and reciprocal. We offer some suggestions for future research on psychopathy.

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In conjunction with their unfeeling and incessant drive to take care of themselves, psychopaths are predators, and anyone who can feed their need at the moment is potential prey. We also report new evidence that psychopathy and its factors are dimensional in nature, perhaps extreme variants of normal personality traits and behaviors.

Psychopaths are at increased risk of engaging in both reactive and instrumental aggression.

Some psychopaths can control their self-serving behaviors so they remain (perhaps just barely) within the bounds of legal behavior, not because to do otherwise would be "wrong," but because being caught would unduly interfere with their efforts to get what they want.

In some circumstances, psychopathic traits may actually help an individual become a well-regarded (although not necessarily well-liked) member of society. This is a detailed overview of the development and structural properties of the PCL-R and its derivatives.

Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. doi: 10.1007/s11920-005-0026-3 Psychopathy traditionally is defined by a cluster of inferred personality traits and socially deviant behaviors. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217-246. Factor 2 is strongly correlated with these latter variables and with scales related to socialization.

Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. The accepted standard for the reliable and valid assessment of psychopathy is the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091452 In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. We conclude that both factors measure important elements of psychopathy and that assessments based only on the presence of antisocial behavior or on scales related to socialization are inadequate. — Psychopaths lack the normal capacity to feel moral emotions (normally, guilt emerges from empathy) versus the view that moral sensitivity is predominantly cognitive rather than affective in nature. — Psychopathy is largely a genetic trait versus the view that it is mediated significantly by environment. — Therapy is not helpful or even counterproductive in psychopaths (increasing psychopathic behavior) versus the view that the effects of therapy can be positive, especially in youth. Others have suggested results of therapy are essentially unknown based upon today's data. Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed. Because of its importance in basic and applied research, and in the mental health and criminal justice systems, the PCL-R has been subjected to intense scrutiny by researchers and clinicians. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile.

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